The chemical bond is consistent with the laws of physics governing energy. A chemical bond is a permanent attraction between atoms, ions, or molecules that permits the synthesis of chemical compounds.
The bond can be formed by the electrostatic force between oppositely charged ions, as in ionic bonds, or by sharing electrons, as in covalent bonds.
There are “strong bonds” or “main bonds” such as covalent, ionic, and metallic connections and “weak bonds” or “secondary bonds,” including dipole-dipole interactions.
Negatively charged electrons rotating the nucleus and positively charged protons within the nucleus are attracted to one another due to the electromagnetic force that opposing charges exert.
An electron between two nuclei will be attracted to both, and the nuclei will also be attracted to electrons in this position. This attraction is the basis for the chemical bond.
Due to the instance wave nature of electrons and their lesser mass, they must occupy a much bigger volume than nuclei. This volume maintains the atomic nuclei in a bond relatively far apart relative to the size of the nuclei.
Strong chemical bonds generally involve the transfer or exchange of electrons between the atoms involved.
Atoms in molecules, metals, diatomic gases, and most of our physical surroundings are kept together by chemical bonds, which determine matter’s structure and bulk properties.
Quantum theory can explain all bonds, but simplification principles enable chemists to anticipate bond strength, polarity, and directionality. Examples include the octet rule and the VSEPR theory.
Valence bond theory, comprising orbital hybridization and resonance, and molecular orbital theory, comprising a linear combination of atomic orbitals and ligand field method, are more complex theories. Bond polarities and their influences on chemical compounds are described using electrostatics.
A Summary Of The Main Types Of Chemical Bonding
Atoms attract each other to form a chemical connection. This attraction may result from the differing behavior of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms. In various situations, there is no apparent distinction between these actions; they meld into one another.
However, it remains helpful and common to distinguish between various types of bonds, which result in distinct properties of condensed matter.
In the most basic perspective of a covalent bond, one or more electrons (typically a pair of electrons) are attracted into the space between the two atomic nuclei. By forming bonds, energy is released.
This is not due to a decrease in potential energy, as the electron-electron and proton-proton repulsions cancel out the attraction between the two electrons and the two protons.
Instead, the release of energy (and hence the bond’s stability) results from the decrease in kinetic energy due to the electrons being in a more geographically scattered (i.e., longer de Broglie wavelength) orbital as compared to when each electron was closer to its nucleus.
These bonds exist between specifically identifiable atoms and have an orientation in space, allowing them to be depicted as single connecting lines between atoms in drawings or as sticks between spheres in models.
In a polar covalent bond, electrons are shared unequally between two nuclei. Covalent bonds frequently lead to the formation of molecules, which in solids and liquids are attached to other molecules by forces that are typically far less than the covalent bonds that keep the molecules together internally.
These weak intermolecular interactions provide organic molecular compounds, such as waxes and oils, with their soft bulk properties and low melting points (in liquids, molecules must cease most structured or oriented contact with each other).
However, when covalent bonds link long chains of atoms in large molecules or when covalent bonds increase in networks through solids that are not comprised of discrete molecules (like diamond or quartz or the silicate minerals found in many types of rock), the resulting structures can be both robust and tough, at least in the direction oriented correctly with networks of covalent bonds.
Moreover, the melting points of such covalent polymers and networks increase significantly.
In a simplified model of an ionic connection, the bonding electron is not at all shared but rather transferred. In this bond form, the outer atomic orbital of one atom is empty, permitting the insertion of one or more electrons.
These newly added electrons may occupy a lower energy state (essentially closer to having a greater nuclear charge) than they would in a different atom.
Consequently, one nucleus offers a more firmly bonded site for an electron than another, allowing one atom to transfer an electron to the other. This transfer leads one atom to acquire a net positive charge while the other acquires a net negative charge.
The electrostatic attraction then forms the link between the positively and negatively charged ions. Ionic bonds may be viewed as the most extreme forms of polarization in covalent bonds.
Typically, these bonds have no particular orientation in space, as they result from equal electrostatic attraction between each ion and all other ions in the vicinity.
Ionic bonds are strong (therefore, ionic compounds require high melting temperatures) but also brittle, as the forces between ions are short-range and do not readily bridge cracks and fractures.
This connection is responsible for the physical properties of crystals of traditional mineral salts, such as table salt.
Metallic bonding is an uncommonly discussed type of adhesion. In this bonding, each metal atom provides one or more electrons to a “sea” of electrons between several metal atoms.
Each electron in this sea is free to associate simultaneously with many atoms by its wave character. Due to the loss of their electrons, the metal atoms become somewhat positively charged, while the electrons stay attracted to many atoms without being a part of any particular atom.
Metallic bonding can be viewed as an extreme instance of the delocalization of electrons over a huge system of covalent bonds in which every atom participates. Typically, this form of bonding is very strong (resulting in the tensile strength of metals).
However, metallic bonding is more collective than other forms, allowing metal crystals to deform more freely. This is because metallic crystals are formed of atoms attracted to one another but not in any specific direction.
Consequently, metals become malleable. The cloud of electrons in metallic bonding is responsible for the notably high electrical and thermal conductivity of metals and their shine, which reflects most of the frequencies of white light.
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