Immortal cell lines Developments in cell technology resulted in advances in biology. They are referred to as “immortal” if they can divide an unlimited number of times in a laboratory cell culture dish as long as the conditions for cell survival are satisfied.
Immortal cell lines are a crucial tool for studying the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular animals. In biotechnology, immortalized cell lines have also been utilized. An immortalized cell line is a colony of cells from a multicellular creature that would not usually proliferate.
How Are Cell Lines Generated?
Immortalized cell lines are produced from many sources, such as malignancies with chromosomal defects or mutations that allow them to increase indefinitely.
Because immortalized cells continually divide, the dish or flask they are grown is ultimately filled.
Immortalized Cell Line
An immortalized cell line is a group of cells from a multicellular creature that would not ordinarily proliferate forever but may continue to divide due to mutation. Therefore, the cells can be cultivated in vitro for extended periods.
The necessary mutations for immortality can occur spontaneously or be produced on purpose for experimental objectives.
Immortal cell lines are a crucial tool for studying the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular animals. In biotechnology, immortalized cell lines have also been utilized.
Stem cells, which may also divide endlessly and are a natural element of the development of multicellular organisms, should not be confused with immortalized cell lines.
Role And Uses Of Immortalized Cell Line
Widespread use of immortalized cell lines as a model for more complicated biological systems, such as the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells.
The primary benefit of employing an immortal cell line in scientific study is its longevity; the cells may be cultured forever. It facilitates the investigation of the biology of cells that could have a limited lifespan otherwise.
Additionally, immortalized cell lines can be cloned, resulting in a clonal population that can be perpetuated indefinitely. It permits many analyses of genetically identical cells, which is advantageous for scientific research requiring replication.
The alternative, which involves analyzing primary cells from various tissue donors, lacks this benefit.
In biotechnology, immortalized cell lines are cost-effective for producing in vitro cells comparable to those found in multicellular organisms. From assessing the toxicity of chemicals or medications to creating eukaryotic proteins, the cells serve many functions.
Methods Of Generation In Immortalized Cell Line
There are several ways to generate immortalized cell lines:
- Isolation from a malignancy that occurs spontaneously. It is the first technique for immortalizing a cell line.
- HeLa is generated from cervical cancer cells extracted from Henrietta Lacks, a 31-year-old African-American mother of five who died of cancer on October 4, 1951. Lacks’ cervical cancer cells were extracted on February 8, 1951. The introduction of a viral gene partially deregulates cell cycle progression.
- Artificial production of essential proteins for immortality, such as telomerase, inhibits chromosomal end degradation during DNA replication in eukaryotes.
- The hybridoma technique generates immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines by fusing an antibody-producing B cell with a myeloma (B-cell malignancy) cell.
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