Standardization is ascertaining a solution’s precise concentration (molarity). Titration is a sort of analytical process that is frequently employed in standardization. In titration, a precise volume of one chemical is reacted with a quantity of another substance that is already known.
In titration, the point at which the reaction is complete is known as the endpoint. An indicator is a chemical substance used to signify (signal) the endpoint. This experiment uses phenolphthalein as its indicator. The chemical compound, phenolphthalein, is colorless in acidic and pink in basic solutions.
This experiment employs two distinct acid-base standardization methods. First, the molarity of a sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) will be evaluated by titrating a sample of potassium acid phthalate (KHP; HKC8H4O4) with the NaOH. In the second approach, standard NaOH will be employed to measure the molarity of a hydrochloric solution (HCl).
Significant terms in analytical chemistry include standardization and titration. Although both utilize the same measuring technique, their applications are distinct.
Titration, often known as volumetric or titrimetric analysis, is a quantitative method of chemical analysis. It is an analytical technique for determining the concentration of a particular chemical species in a solution sample.
Standardization is a process for precisely determining the concentration of a solution. The most common method for standardizing a solution is titration. The standardization process requires a reference standard solution.
There are two sorts of standard solutions: primary standard solutions and secondary standard solutions. For accurate uniformity, we often utilize major standard solutions. These answers are extremely pure (99.9 percent exact).
The highest solution concentration created from a solid chemical material might vary based on several variables, such as instrumentation faults, compound purity, human mistake, etc.
For instance, if you wish to make a 1.0 molL-1 EDTA solution, you can weigh the needed amount and dissolve inadequate water volume. The estimated weight may be computed from the information on the bottle’s label. However, it could not deliver the precise concentration we needed.
To ascertain the precise concentration of the created solution, it must be standardized with a main standard solution following preparation.
Every time before beginning a titration, the titrant must be standardized. Standardization’s primary objective is to determine the exact concentration of the produced solution.
Typically, while establishing a standard solution, we cannot determine its analytical precision; thus, we must compare the data to another main standard.
Example Of Standardization:
Using the phenolphthalein indicator, you should standardize a typical sodium hydroxide solution against potassium hydrogen phthalate. The indicator is used to cause a color shift. We cannot utilize sodium hydroxide (NaOH) simply by mixing it with water.
Since NaOH is hygroscopic, it absorbs moisture from the air. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the precise concentration of the NaOH solution used to calculate the concentration of an unknown sample solution by titration.
Why Do We Use A Standardized Approach?
Before beginning a chemical experiment, it is sometimes important to standardize the solution (reagents) to obtain reliable measurements, even if its real concentration changes. Standardizing the answer can help minimize the variety of human and instrumental errors.
Method For Standardization:
- Prepare a solution that requires standardization.
- Fill the burette and adjust the zero setting.
- Weigh the needed amount of the main standard and dissolve it with a suitable solvent volume.
- Add 1-2 drops of the marker.
- Using the titrant, titrate the above solution and record the readings.
- To obtain detailed findings, repeat the titration three times, compute the molarity or normality using their mean, and take their standard deviation.
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