In a chemical process, (aq) signifies an aqueous solution. A solution whose solvent is water is an aqueous solution. A solution whose solvent is water is an aqueous solution. It is often represented in chemical equations by attaching (aq) to the applicable chemical formula.
For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl – (aq).
The term aqueous (which derives from aqua) denotes relating to, being comparable to, or dissolving in water.
Water is a universal solvent in chemistry because it is an excellent solvent and naturally plentiful.
Since water is commonly employed as the solvent in studies, the term solution refers to an aqueous solution unless the solvent is indicated. A non-aqueous solution is one in which the liquid solvent is not water.
Characteristics Of Aqueous Solution
Hydrophilic substances dissolve well in water, but hydrophobic substances do not. Sodium chloride is an example of a hydrophilic material. As part of their Arrhenius definitions, acids and bases are aqueous solutions.
Hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH) are in Arrhenius equilibrium in an aqueous solution ([H+][OH] = Kw = 1 x 109 at 298 K). As part of their Arrhenius definitions, acids and bases are aqueous solutions.
Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is an example of an Arrhenius acid because, when dissolved in water, it dissociates the hydrogen ion. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is an Arrhenius base because, when dissolved in water, it dissociates the hydroxide ion.
Aqueous solutions may include hydrated atomic hydrogen and hydrated electrons, particularly in the alkaline zone or after radiolysis.
Reactions In Aqueous Solution
Typically, reactions in aqueous solutions are metathesis reactions. Metathesis reactions are another word for double displacement, which occurs when a cation displaces to establish an ionic connection with the other anion. The cation bound to the latter anion will dissociate and bond with the other anion.
Precipitation is a typical metathesis process in aqueous fluids. This reaction happens when two aqueous strong electrolyte solutions combine to form an insoluble solid, a precipitate.
The capacity of a material to dissolve in water depends on whether it can match or exceed the strong, attractive forces that water molecules create amongst themselves. If material is incapable of dissolving in water, its molecules precipitate.
When developing the equations for precipitation reactions, it is necessary to identify the residue. To calculate the precipitate, check a solubility chart. Insoluble chemicals precipitate, whereas soluble compounds are watery.
There may not always be precipitation. In metathesis processes, dissociated ions are represented by complete ionic equations and net ionic equations.
When doing calculations involving the reaction of one or more aqueous solutions, it is generally necessary to determine the concentration or molarity of the solutions. The concentration of a solution is expressed in terms of the form of the solute before dissolution.
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