Hydrology is the scientific study of water. Hydrologists investigate the physical processes that compete with the global water cycle, encompassing most earth and environmental science disciplines. The hydrological community consists of physical scientists, engineers, and water resource managers.
It is distinct from the oceanography and atmospheric science groups since it focuses on surface water and groundwater in terrestrial contexts.
This convention is used by the Earth Systems and Environmental Science module, and this article gives an introduction to the fundamental domains of hydrology: the world’s water cycle, lakes, rivers, wetlands, freshwater, the cryosphere, and water supplies, aquatic life, and water chemistry.
It is the study of water on the earth’s surface and under the earth’s surface, the occurrence and flow of water, its physical and chemical qualities, and its connection with living and nonliving components of the environment.
Therefore, hydrology is the study of water’s movement through the earth’s surface, into the atmosphere, and back to the earth’s surface in its many forms. It consists of precipitation, absorption, surface runoff, stream inflows in catchments, and groundwater.
Hydrology is the most influential abiotic component in determining wetland characteristics because it impacts abiotic biological processes that define plant type (marsh, swamp, fen, and bog) and animal usage.
Hydrology and wetland type are affected by inflows and outflows, such as precipitation, groundwater, soil properties, surface water, tidal movement, floods and droughts, and evaporation.
Regardless of the combination of factors, the equilibrium between input and outflow defines the depth, hydroperiod, and frequency of flooding, three of the most influential drivers of bird and animal usage of wetland habitats.
In wetlands bordering lakes and riverine wetlands, the physical energy associated with inflows and outflows of water may also substantially impact the plants.
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