According to modern science, the Sun is 4 1/2 billion years old. Our cosmological systems have always been centered on the Sun. However, with the advent of modern astronomy, humanity has realized that the Sun is just one among many stars in the universe.
It is a typical G-type main-sequence star (G2V, sometimes known as a “yellow dwarf”). As with all-stars, its existence comprises a formation, main sequence, and final demise.
This lifespan began around 4.6 billion years ago. It will continue for another 4.5 – 5.5 billion years, at which point it will run out of hydrogen and helium and transform into a white dwarf.
However, this is only a condensed representation of the Sun’s lifespan. God (or Satan, depending on whom you ask) is always in the details!
The Sun is around halfway through the most stable portion of its existence. During the previous four billion years, when planet Earth and the entire Solar System were created, it has stayed essentially untouched.
It will continue for yet another four billion years, at which point the planet’s supply of hydrogen fuel will be depleted. When this occurs, some rather catastrophic events will occur!
The Birth of the Sun
According to the Nebular Theory, the Sun and all planets in our Solar System originated from a massive cloud of molecular gas and dust.
Approximately 4.57 billion years ago, something caused the cloud to collapse. It may have been caused by a passing star or shock waves from a supernova, but the eventual effect was a gravitational collapse in the cloud’s core.
Due to this collapse, dust, and gas accumulated in denser places. As the denser areas drew in an increasing amount of stuff, conservation of momentum drove it to begin rotating, and increasing pressure caused it to heat up.
Most of the material condensed into a ball in the center, while the remainder flattened into a disk around it.
The central ball would eventually become the Sun, while the material disk would create the planets. Before fusion was started in the Sun’s core, it was a collapsing protostar for around a hundred thousand years. Its internal temperature and pressures were sufficient to initiate the process during that time.
The Sun was once a T Tauri star, a furiously active star that emitted a powerful solar wind. And only a few million years later, it assumed its present shape. The Sun’s life cycle had begun.
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